PROTECTION OF ANIMALS.
GEORGE T. ANGELL,
PRESIDENT OF THE MASS. SOCIETY FOU THE PUEVENTION OF CKUELTY- TO ANIMALa
[BEAD AT THE ANNUAL MERTINO OF THE AMERICAN SOCIAL SCIENCE
PRINTED FROiM THE PUBLICATIONS
AMERICAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION,
By HURD and HOUGHTON, 13 Astor Place, N. Y.
Wc>f. HibersiUe ^Pcess, ffiamfiritige, |Was».
PROTECTION OF ANIMALS.
GEORGE T. ANGELL,
PEESIDENT OF THE MASS. SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS.
[READ AT THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN SOCIAL SCIENCE
PRINTED FROM THE PUBLICATIONS
AMERICAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION,
By HUKD and HOUGHTON, 13 Astoe Place, N. Y.
E'ttz Hibecsitre '^xess, (Kamljinrge, il^sfl.
THE MASSACHUSETTS SOCIETY
PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS.
BOARD OF GOVERNMENT, 1874-5.
GEORGE T. ANGELL.
His Honor Thomas Talbot,
Hon. William B. Washbuen, U. S. S., | Ex-Gov. A. H. Bullock,
Ex-Go V. 'William Claflin, I Hon. Henry L. Pierce,
And ninety-five others throughout the State.
Greelt S. Curtis.
Charles A. Currier.
Geobge T. Angeli.
RnssELL Sttirgis, Jr.
W. AV. MORLANB.
D. D. Slade.
William G. Weld.
Mrs. William Appleton.
Mrs. J. C. Johnson.
Miss Ann Wigglesworth.
Miss Helen Bigelow.
Miss Alice M. Wellington.
Mrs. C. D. Homans.
Miss Florence Lyman.
Frank B. Fay.
Henry S. Russeu,.
C. L. Hetwood.
Samuel E. Sawyer.
Henry P. Kidder.
G. J. F. Bryant.
W. H. Baldwin.
Henry S. Washburn.
John B. Taft.
Greely S. Curtis.
Frank B. Fay.
Office, 46 Washington Street, Boston.
Note. — The following paper, taken from the publications of the American Social Sci-
ence Association, is reprinted bj^ the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty
to Animals, for general circulation. Copies can be procured at the office of that Society,
46 Washington Street, Boston.
THE PROTECTION OF ANIMALS.
By George T. Angell, President of the Mascachusetts Society for the Pkk-
VENTION OF CeUELTY TO ANIMALS.
If the time allotted to this pajier were longer, I should be glad to
speak of many matters relating to animals, worthy of thought, which for
lack of time I shall not be able to discuss ; as, for instance, their intel-
lectual qualities, the languages by which they communicate their thoughts
to each other ; well authenticated instances in which they have exhibited
a high degree of reason, and a keen perception of right and wrong ; the
belief of a large majority of the human race in their immortality, which
belief has been advocated by many of the most eminent Christian theolo-
gians and scholars, including such men as John Wesley, Jeremy Taylor,
Coleridge, Lamartine, and Agassiz.
The rise and progress of societies for their protection ; the kind treat-
ment they generally receive in Oriental countries ; the fallacy of that
doctrine that they were created solely for man, and not for their own en-
joyment; all these topics of interest I should be glad to discuss, if
there were not other and more important ones, sufficient to occupy the
time allotted me. I should be glad to give some of my own European
experiences in regard to the kinder treatment of animals there ; to speak
of the hard, smooth roads which I found all over Continental Europe, even
in the highest passes of the Aljis ; how over a large portion of Europe
carriage horses are not only exempted from check reins, but are also
permitted the same use of their eyes which we give to saddle horses, cav-
alry horses, and artillery horses going into battle ; how in European
armies slaughterers are attached to each ambulance corps to kill horses
badly wounded in battle, instead of leaving them, as we did, to die of
starvation ; how, in four months' residence at Paris, I never saw an
omnibus horse unkindly treated, and only one case of overloading ; also
about European hospitals for sick animals, and temporary homes for
stray ones ; or, on the other hand, I might give you a picture of the
wrongs inflicted on man's most useful servant, particularly in old age,
which led the eloquent Raskin to exclaim : " Has any one ever looked up
to Heaven, with an entire understanding of Heaven's ways about the
horse ? " As illustrating these wrongs I will simply say, in passing, that
the officers of the Mass. Society P. C. A. during the last year investigated
nearly two thousand cases of cruelty to horses.
4 THE PROTECTION OF ANIMALS.
I should be glad to speak of the shepherd dogs of Scotland, and the
Newfoundland and the St. Bernard, and the rich men's dogs that protect
their masters' houses, and the poor men's dogs which are their masters'
friends ; or I might read to you an hour about the birds, without
which, because of the wonderful fecundity of insects, Michelet declares
" that man coixld not live." I shall only have time to say in regard to
them, that in the report of the Mass. State Board of Agriculture, for
1873, you will find, first, that the annual loss to crops by insects, in the
United States, is estimated at about four hundred millions of dollars ; and,
second, that a large proportion of this loss ' might be prevented by the
proper encouragement and protection of small birds, and their nests ;
and that for the want of this encouragement and protection American
birds are decreasing, and insects increasing.
But in the space allotted me I can only put before you some of the
conditions, in this country, of animals that supply us with food ; the
bearing of those conditions on public health and morals ; and the means
by which those conditions may be changed.
TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS.
On the 16th of April, 1871, George E. Temple, a Brighton butcher,
died, as appears from the verdict of the coroner's jury, of " blood poison,
inoculated in dressing for market a dead ox, one half of the meat of
which was sent into Boston for sale." On the 20th of April a joint
special committee of the aldermen and common council of Boston was
appointed " to ascertain whether unwholesome meats were sold in that
Five months afterwards the report of that committee, containing the
official reports and testimony of state cattle commissioners, railroad
commissioners, boards of health, and physicians, was published by the
city government. By this report and the various official reports and
evidence therein cited and contained, as well as by other official reports
and evidence more recently published, it appears, —
1st. That our Eastern markets, in both cities and towns, are largely
supplied with the meats of diseased animals, and to some extent with the
meats of animals that have died of disease ; 2d, that the eating of these
meats produces disease in those who eat them ; and 3d, that it is impos-
sible to detect these meats after they have been dressed and put into the
If there were time I might read you pages of details of the manner
in which animals are transported from the plains of Texas to the Atlan-
tic coast, but they may be all generally summed up in the statement of
Dr. Derby, Secretary of the Mass. State Board of Health, in his annual
report for 1874, just published, " that the transportation of animals in
this country, at present, is, in the main, barbarous and infernal."
THE PROTECTION OF ANBIALS. 5
From seven to eight millions of these animals, cattle, sheep, and swine,
are thus brought annually from the West, to supply, not only our cities
and larger towns, but also a large portion of our smaller towns with
It is estimated that about six per cent, of cattle, and about nine per
cent, of sheep and swine, nearly 600,000 in all, annually die on the pas-
sage, and a large portion of these are sold in our markets, either as meat,
or rendered into cooking lard ; while the cattle that get through alive,
for the want of food and water, and by reason of the cruelty inflicted
upon them, after losing on the average, in transportation, nearly a hun-
dred pounds each in weight, from the most juicy and nutritious parts of
the meat, come out of the cars full of fever, and many wdth bruises,
sores, and ulcers ; and these, together with smaller animals, to which
the loss and suifering is, in proportion, equally great, are all sold in our
markets for food.
These cruelties are not confined to Western cattle and long routes, but
are inflicted, to a greater or less extent, on almost all animals transported
to market; as. for instance, some time since, I read in the "Boston
Journal," that out of 125 live lambs shipped from Vermont to Boston,
in a single box car, 121 were taken out dead.
EFFECTS OF CRUELTY UPON THE MEATS.
What effects have these cruelties upon the meats ?
The Board of Health of Chicago, in February, 1871, reported that
" nearly one half the beef, pork, and mutton, offered for sale in that city,
was diseased, and unfit for food."
The Cattle Commissioners of New York, in their Report of 1869, say :
" It became apparent to the Metropolitan Board of Health, in New
York city, that the alarming increase of obstinate and fatal diarrhoea in
the metropolitan district, was caused by the use of diseased meats."
And they add, that " not only do Western cattle lose a hundred pounds
or more per head in transportation, but the tissues of their entire systems
are turned into a feeble, disordered, and feverish condition."
The Massachusetts Railroad Commissioners in their Report of 1871,
say that these meats endanger the health of our people.
Professor Agassiz says : " Let me call your attention to the dangers
arising from the ill-treatment of beef cattle before slaua^hterins: them."
Medical Inspector Hamlin, in his "Notes on the Alimentation of
Armies," says : " The flesh of mammalia undergoes great change, by
reason of fasting, disturbance of sleep, and long continued suffering, re-
sulting in its not only becoming worthless, but deleterious."
In 1866 it was found in New York that hogs were killed by feeding
upon the blood and entrails of animals diseased by transportation,
6 THF PROTECTION OF ANIMALS.
although they will fatten on the same material taken from healthy
animals ; and on the 16th of April, 1871, as I have stated, a Brighton
butcher died of " blood jaoison, inoculated in dressing for market a dead
ox, one half the meat of which was sent into Boston for sale."
CAN THESE MEATS BE DETECTED IN THE AIARKETS ?
Professor Cameron of Dublin says that " the flesh of oxen in the
congestive stage of pleuro-pneumonia cannot be distinguished from that
of healthy oxen."
The Board of Health of Chicago, in their Report published in 1871,
speaking of the Texas cattle fever, say : " As a general rule, it was
found impossible to decide by the appearance of the carcass, after the
viscera had been removed, whether it was fit for market or not."
Dr. Derby, of the Massachusetts State Board of Health, says : " There
can be no approach to certainty in the recognition of the meat of animals
which had been sick at the time of killing, or which have been brought
to the slaughter-house dead."
Horace W. Jordan, member of the Brighton Board of Health, also
one of the Massachusetts State Cattle Commissioners, testifies before the
Boston committee that " when the meat is examined here, it is almost
impossible to tell whether the animal was diseased."
And Professor Gamgee states in the Edinburgh '' Veterinary Review "
of May, 1863, that he has known diseased cattle slaughtered, the beef
of which had the appearance of being the best beef that a butcher can
show ; and yet pigs, dogs, and ferrets died from eating it, and horses
died from drinking water into which the blood of one of these animals
From these facts it appears that cruelty to animals avenges itself
upon the consumer, and that we shall never be secure against disease
from eating poisonous meats until animals are transported without
cruelty ; as they can be with little loss of weight, greater profit to rail-
roads and everybody concerned, and complete jjrotection to public
It was estimated at the Social Science Convention at Albany in 1869,
that Texas cattle which then sold in New York market for about $100,
could, with proper transportation, be sold there for about $40.
SLAUGHTERING OF ANIMALS.
Another subject. It is estimated that from sixty to one hundred
millions of cattle, sheep, and swine, are killed in this country every
year for food ; probably more than t'vo hundred thousand a day.
How do they die ?
As in that mercitul European slaughter-house described by Sir
THE PROTECTION OF ANIMALS. 7
Francis Head, and others ; full fed and rested, under the inspection of
government officers ; in a place kept clean by the constant flow of
water, without foreknowledge and without pain ; or are they dragged,
lialf-starved and frantic with terror, by a rope, or rope and windlass,
into bloody slaughter-houses full of the signs of butchery ?
In the light of medical science it makes a dilBference to the consumer
how they die.
Dr. D. D. Slade, Professor of Zoology of Harvard University, in a
recent lecture before the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture,
says, " the animal to be slaughtered should be conducted to the spot se-
lected, quietly, without the use of goad or club, and everything calcu-
lated to alarm should be removed. All slaughtering premises should be
kept cleansed from blood, and no carcasses be allowed to hang in view.
No animal should be permitted to witness the death of another. Tri-
fling as these measures may appear to the professional butcher, they are
of vast importance, not only in view of avoiding cruelty, but as affect-
ing the wholesomeness of meat ; there being no question as to the
effects of torture, cruelty, and fear upon the secretions, and if upon the
secretions, necessarily upon the flesh."
Now please accompany me for a moment, not to one of the more
brutal slaughter-houses where the cattle are driven in by men armed
with spike poles, where our officers have seen them struck seven blows
with the axe before they were knocked down, and where the eyes of
cattle are sometimes pricked out that they may be driven in more easUy.
I will not ask you to go there ; but go with me to one of. the very
best, and kindest, and least offensive, that you may see how these dumb
creatures, under the most favorable circumstances, are prepared for your
tables. I will simply read you the report of a respectable and reliable
gentleman well known to me, and which has been widely published.
" On the 12th of July, 1872," he says, " I went to the slaughter-house
of Mr. C. A. Thomas, at Peabody, — it being one of the best in New
England, — to witness the mode and conditions of slaughtering.
" The animals were all forcibly drawn by a rope into the room, the
floor of which was reeking and slippery with blood and offal, and in full
sight of the heads, hearts, livers, and still quivering carcasses of those
which had preceded them, which were hanging on the walls, and lying
upon the floor around them. The cattle, of course, were wild with fear,
and in a condition bordering on frenzy, were knocked down and dressed ;
and in this state of excitement and heat, growing out of their fears and
struggles, were converted into beef.
" The establishment of Mr» Thomas may be regarded as a model one
compared with any others in this region. I saw six oxen killed and
dressed there, five of which were so badly bruised that to make them
8 THE PROTECTION OF ANIMALS.
look " all right " tlie butchers pared off great clots of swollen tissue, iu-
fdsed with blood and serum, weighing from a half to several pounds
each, and threw them among the offal. Old sores were so neatly cut
out, that the unskilled eye would never suspect they had existed. Some
of these sore bruises were more than a foot in diameter.
" Cattle at all the slaughter-houses I have visited — at Peabody, Port-
land, Brighton, New York, and other places — show the same bruised
and battered condition."
In confirmation of this permit me to say, that a Fall River butcher
told a friend of mine that he was sometimes compelled to cut out of his
beef from fifty to seventy-five pounds, diseased by sores caused by trans-
portation ; and a Lynn butcher, speakiog of animals that die on the
cars, said : " We cannot afford to lose them, so we dress them all, and
what is not too far gone we put into the stalls."
These are the meats, which without any inspection whatever, are
poured into our markets to supply us with food.
Another subject, and next in importance to the public health, is the
proper treatment of the animals that sujiply us with milk. It is well
known to physicians and others who have investigated this subject, that
not only the quantity, but also the quality of milk, depends on the man-
ner in which cows are treated. If starved, frozen, or kept without sun-
shine, exercise, or companions, or worried by dogs, or frightened by boys,
or improperly fed, or permitted to drink impure water, or water poisoned
with lead, or kept in the foul air of unclean or improperly ventilated sta-
bles, or otherwise cruelly treated, their milk and its jDroducts are liable
to produce sickness, and may produce death ; in other words, that the
milk of an improperly fed, or otherwise cruelly treated animal, may be as
dangerous to the consumer as the milk of an improperly fed, or cruelly
Medical books abound with cases showing this danger, — "a chUd
dying m a few minutes after being nursed by its mother while m a
state of great excitement," — "a young dog thrown into epileptic con-
vulsions from a similar cause," — '■ pigs killed by being fed on the milk
of diseased cows." These are some of the cases cited in the medical books
and elsewhere. Dr. Brown-Sequard, in a recent lecture, says : " Mothers
who give way to anger, or other emotions, often injure the infant's health
for life, if it be not killed outright."
See also on this subject the 1873 Report of the Mass. State Board of
Health ; under the heads of " Infant Mortality," and the " Adulteration of
Milk ; " see also Carpenter's " Physiology," Cooper on " Diseases of the
Breast," and other medical works on the subject.
THE PROTECTION OF ANIMALS. 9
Now thousands of cows giving milk which is used in our cities and
towns, are uniformly, or at times, kept in improper localities, improp-
erly fed, or otherwise cruelly treated ; resulting in adult sickness and in-
fant mortality. To those who have read the official evidence on tliis sub-
ject, there can be no doubt that if the causes of sudden and early deaths
were truly written in our cemeteries, they would read in many instances,
" Died because somebody violated God's merciful laws, established for the
protection of his lower creatures."
" Our calves," say the Boston Committee, in their Report before referred
to, " are brought mostly from Western Massachusetts, Maine, Vermont,
and Canada ; they are kept two or three days without nourishment after
being taken from the cow, while the car load is being made up ; they are
then shipped, from 90 to 100 of them in each car, and if one falls, it is
pretty sure to be trampled to death ; they are slaughtered from one to
three days after their arrival ; they are too young to eat hay, and nothing
else is given them to eat during four to six days that they are kept after
being taken from the cow, and during this time they are bled, to make
their flesh look whiter," Sometimes, I may add, they are bled several
times before they are killed, to make the flesh look whiter ; a practice,
which as our best physicians say, makes the meat indigestible and un-
wholesome. Very different these practices from what I found in Paris,
where calves were carried to market in good condition, were fed regularly
with a preparation of eggs, meal, and warm water, up to the time of kill-
ing, and where a butcher would have no more thought of bleeding a calf
before killing it, than of bleeding an ox, cow, lamb, or any other crea-
SHEEP AND FOWLS.
Another matter of common occurrence here is the shearing of sheep in
cold weather, before they are sent to market, which compels them to
shiver and freeze sometimes several days before they are killed.
" There are more or less dead sheep on every train," say the Boston
Committee, " and those that are sheared get badly bruised." Also pluck-
ing fowls alive ; also packing live poultry so closely in crates that many
of them die of suffocation ; all of which things are not only cruel to the
animals, but also injure the meat, and to a greater or less extent endanger
the public health.
CRUELTY ALWAYS INJURES THE MEAT.
So universal is the law that cruelty to the animal injures the meat,
that an eminent English physician. Dr. Carpenter, in a recent letter to
10 THE PROTECTION OF ANIMALS.
the " London Times," assures us that the meats of animals wnicli have
been made fat by overfeeding, will sometimes produce gastric diseases in
those who eat them. In England it has been found that the flesh of
hares chased and worried by dogs, becomes diseased, and soon putrifies.
Old hunters tell us they do not like to eat the meat of deer which have
been run and worried by dogs, and that they sometimes, when hunting,
shoot dogs to prevent their worrying the deer, and so spoiling the
meat. The same doctrine applies to game caught and tortured in steel
traps. In an essay which took the prize at the New England Agricul-
tural Fair of 1872, I find that the flesh of animals killed when in a
state of great excitement, soon putrifies ; and that the flesh of animals
killed instantly without pain, is found to contain elements indispensable
to the easy and complete digestion of the meat (amongst which is one
named " Glycogene "), and which elements are almost, or entirely want-
ing in animals that have suffered before dying.
EFFECTS OF CRUELTY TO FISH.
Fishermen, in some parts of Europe, and, I may add, some parts of
this country, kill fish with a knife or bludgeon as soon as they are taken
from the water, because fish thus killed are found to be better than
those which have long gasped and struggled before dying. Professor
Slade, in his lecture before the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture,
before referred to, says on this subject, " Various modes of killing fish
are practiced. The Dutch, for example, destroy life by making a slight
longitudinal incision under the tail with a sharp instrument." " On the
Rhine, they kill salmon by thrusting a steel needle into their heads."
" Fish may be easily killed by striking them a quick, sharp blow, with a
small stick on the back of the head, just behind the eyes, or by taking
them by the tail and striking the head quickly against any hard substance."
And the professor continues : " It has been observed that fish which
are instantly killed on being taken from the water, are vastly superior
in taste and solidity to those which are allowed to die, as is the imiver-
sal custom with us. Aaid why," he continues, " should this not be the
case ? Whj should we make a distinction between animals that swim,
and those that fly or run ? No one of us would think of eating beast
or bird that died a natural death."
OUR SALT WATER FISH.
Perhaps, in the light of these authorities, it is well to inquire how the
fish brought to our markets are obtained, and how they die.
At the present time nearly all our salt water fish are caught on what
are called " trawls," or long ropes, with ten hundred to twelve hundred
hooks and lines attached, sunk by stones or heavy weights at either end
THE PROTECTION OF ANIMALS. 11
to the bottom ; the fish are caught, of course, near the bottom, and str\ig-
gle there a considerable time until they die, and then lie dead in the
water. Usually the trawls are taken up the same day they are put down,
but frequently not until the next day ; and sometimes, in bad weather,
not for several days. In the mean time they lie dead in the water. 1
am told by Swampscott fishermen that they sometimes pick over a hun-
dred, and sometimes even a thousand of these fish before they find one
they are willing to take home to their families. The rest are sold in
our markets, and I may add that hundreds of thousands of young fish of
no value are caught and killed on these trawls, having no time to grow ;
and because of this, fish are becoming so scarce on our coast that a
fisherman cannot now take, on the average, on a trawl, with a thousand
or iwelve hundred hooks, so many pounds of dead fish, as he used to
catch of live ones with a single hook and line.
Other cruelties are inflicted on fish caught alive, in trying to keep
them alive. Also on lobsters, in the boiling of which, sometimes while
the lower lobsters in the kettle are boiled, the top ones are trying to
For the public health, if for no other reason, these things should be
investigated and stopped.
CATTLE IN WINTER.
A vast deal of cruelty is inflicted upon many domestic animals before
they reach the cattle markets, particularly during our long winters,
through the want of food and shelter.
One of the first cases which enlisted my sympathies in this subject,
was, when passing many years ago, in early spring, the house of a
wealthy, but miserly woman in a town near Boston, I saw driven from
her yard* a cow that was simply a skeleton ; nothing but skin and bones ;
she was hardly able to stagger through the street. On inquiry, I found
it was the custom of this wealthy woman to keep that poor animal
during the entire winter just at the point of starvation, to save the cost
MERCIFUL KILLING OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS.
There is great need of information in regard to the most merciful
methods of killing our domestic animals.
In a case recently reported to me, a nominally Christian, and for
aught I know, kind hearted man, led h is old horse through the snow into
the woods, and beat him on the head with a club, and left him for dead.
Three days after, the old horse came crawling back into his master's
At the request of the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of
12 THE PROTECTION OF ANIMALS.
Cruelty to Animals, the professor of zoology of Harvard University has
recently piepared a small pamphlet, illustrated by cuts, showing how to
kill each domestic animal in the most merciful manner.
KILLING OF ANIMALS BY BOYS.
Our smaller domestic pet animals, such as dogs, cats, and the like,
are, in probably a great majority of cases, killed cruelly, when it would
be easy to have some one in every town, as we now have in Boston, to
kill them mercifully, with a little chlorofoi'm, or otherwise. And this
killing, not unfrequently, is intrusted to boys.
If there were more time, I could give you many instances within my
knowledge, which are but samples of thousands of cases constantly oc-
curring, illustrating the cruelty thus inflicted upon the animals, and its
pernicious influence on the boys.
Dr. Ellicott, Lord Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, one of the best
thinkers in England, says, " "Wantonness in the child, if unchecked, is
sure to deepen into cruelty, or indifference to it in the man."
I could give you pages of similar opinions.
For all these wrongs which I have enumerated, what is the remedy ?
First, better transportation. The Jewish Rabbi goes to our markets and
selects what seems a healthy animal. He stands at the slaughter-house
while it is slaughtered and dressed. During the ^jrocess, he carefully
examines its internal organs, and if he finds the slightest trace of dis-
ease, passes it over to the Christian.
When public opinion shall demand the same inspection of animals,
both before and after they are killed, now practiced in Continental Eu-
ropean cities, and by the Jews, so far as I am informed, everywhere,
and the Christian inspector shall stand at our cattle markets, side by
side with the Jewish Rabbi, to condemn, and cause to be destroyed
the meat of every diseased animal, then animals will be brought to our
markets without cruelty, and the Christian will eat as good meat as the
Cattle cars have already been invented and tried with entire success,
in which cattle can be carried thousands of miles with food, water, and
'est, and arrive in good condition.
When these cars come into general use, railroads will make more
money, because one third to one half more cars will be required to trans-
port the same number of cattle ; dealers will make more money, because
(saying nothing of animals that die on the passage) an enormous waste
of the best parts of the meat will be saved, and this saving will not only
pay the increased charges of transportation, but also leave an immense
THE PROTECTION OF ANIMALS. 13
margin of gain ; and consumers getting wholesome meats at one half to
three fourths the prices they now pay for diseased meats, will buy larger
quantities, and so increase the trade. I will also further state what I
should be glad to prove, if there were more time :
1st. That it is perfectly practicable to supply all animals in transporta-
tion with food and water. 2d. That the keeping of calves several days
without nourishment is entirely inexcusable, for they will readily drink
flour mixed with water ; and 3d. That all animals can be transported on
cars properly constructed, with the same speed as men, and the saving in
their value will more than pay for their rapid transportation.
How prevent the starving of animals before they are slaughtered, and
secure merciful methods of slaughtering them ?
We have now at Brighton, Mass., one of the best abattoirs in the world,
where every animal can be killed in the most merciful manner ; though
for want of proper inspection (for which the legislature has been peti-
tioned) animals are killed there with much cruelty.
This abattoir is so constructed that each of the larger animals, after
being slaughtered and dressed, may be carried immediately by machinery
to another room ; all the refuse matter passed through the floor into
small metallic wagons, in which it is carried to the rendering house, and
every trace of blood washed off before the next animal is brought in —
and calves, sheep, and swine can be killed there without cruelty, by
having each brought singly to the slaughter room, by some one having no
blood on his clothing, and stunning it with a single blow of a mallet or
hammer, just before, or at the moment it is brought in.
In several of the smaller slaughter-houses of Massachusetts, they now
have, for killing cattle, just outside the slaughter house, box-pens, like a
horse's stall, with a door at each end ; the animal is driven in and in-
stantly stunned and kdled by a single bullet in the head, from a rifle,
thrust through an open slide in the front door ; the animal is at once
hauled into the slaughter room, leaving no blood in the pen to terrify
the succeeding animal, and injure its meat.
By this process it has been found that much time is saved, which, imder
the systems now generally practiced, is lost in hauling or driving animals
into bloody slaughter-houses.
All that is needed is a public opinion which shall require these forms
of slaughtering to be generally practiced ; and that faithful inspectors
shall be stationed at the larger slaughter-houses to see that they are prop
erly carried out, and all animals properly fed and watered up to the time
of killing ; then the sixty millions, or more, of dumb creatures that are
now killed annually in this country for food,' will die without pain to
themselves, or danger to the consumer.
14 THE PROTECTION OF ANIMALS.
How improve the treatment of animals that supply us with milk ?
and how protect birds and their nests ? and how check every form of
cruelty inflicted on dumb creatures ?
1. By circulating information.
2. By humane education, through facts in natural history, pictures,
stories, songs, sentences on the blackboard and in copy books, prizes for
compositions, instruction by teachers, talks to and with the children in
our schools, Sunday-schools, and in every home.
Realizing the importance of this, the French Minister of Public In-
struction ordered the publications of the French Society for the pre-
vention of cruelty to animals to be circulated in the French schools, and
called the attention of all the teachers of France to the importance of
educating the children humanely.
The Ladies' Humane Education Committee of the Royal Society of
England, sent at one time a humane publication to about twenty-five
thousand school-masters in Great Britain, with an addz'ess, asking their
aid in the schools.
The Royal Society of England, and several societies in the United
States, have adopted the plan of giving prizes to pupils in the schools
who write the best compositions on the subject.
The French society, instead of prizes, gives medals of gold, silver, and
bronze to those who have shown the greatest kindness to animals. The
Archbishop of Bordeaux, Monseigneur Dounet, in a recent address,
states that in a number of the dioceses of France, it is the custom of the
pastors of the churches, when preparing children for their first com-
munion, to require from them a promise never to ill-treat any dumb
In many of the schools at Portsmouth, N. H., they have adopted the
practice of having humane stories or other humane selections read daily
to the pupils in each school.
The Hon. J. C. Dore, former President of the Board of Education,
also of the Board of Trade, of Chicago, and who has perhaps done as
much for dumb animals as any man in the West, assured me that he
attributed all his interest in the subject to verses which his teacher
handed him when a child.
EASY TO INTEREST CHILDREN.
It is very easy to enlist the sympathies of children in the animal world.
Take, for instance, the history and habits of birds : show how wonder-
fully they are created ; how kind to their young ; how useful to agricul-
ture; what power they have in flight. The swallow that flies sixty
THE PROTECTION OF ANIMALS. 15
miles an hour, or the frigate bird which, in the words of Audubon,
*' flies with the velocity of a meteor," and according to Michelet can
float at an elevation of ten thousand feet, and cross the tropical Atlantic
ocean in a single night ; or those birds of beauty and of song, the
oriole, the linnet, the lark, and sweetest of all, the nightingale, whose
voice caused one of old to exclaim, " Lord, what music hast thou pro-
vided for saints in heaven, when thou hast afforded such music for men
Or, take that wonderful beast of the desert, the camel, which, nour-
ished by its own humps of fat, and carrying its own reservoirs of water,
pursues its toilsome way across pathless deserts for the comfort and con-
venience of man.
Is it not easy to carry up the minds and hearts of children by thoughts
like these from the creature to the infinitely wise, good, and powerful
I believe there is a great defect in our systems of education. I believe
that in our public schools it is quite as possible to develop the heart
as the intellect, and that when this is required and done, we shall not
only have higher protection for dumb creatures, and so increased length
of human life, but also human life better developed and better worth
living. I believe that the future student of Ameiican history will
wonder, that in the public schools of a free government, whose very
existence depended upon public integrity and morals, so much attention
should have been paid to the cultivation of the intellect, and so little to
the cultivation of the heart. Only a few weeks since, the educated sub-
master of a high school in one of our cities, was fined forty dollars and
costs, for throwing a dog which had followed some of his pupils to
school, from the third story window of his school-house to the pave-
ment, where it lay mangled and bleeding until a humane gentleman
passing, put it out of pain.
Let us study the experiences of the Quakers, Moravians, and teachers
of the Kindergarten. " Ever after I introduced the teaching of kind-
ness to animals into my school," says M. De Sailly, an eminent French
school-master, " I found the children not only more kind to animals, but
also more kind to each other." "I am sure children cannot be taught
humanity to animals, without at the same time being taught a higher
humanity," says the superintendent of the Boston public schools. " The
great need of our country," said Hiram Powers to me at Florence, "in
more education of the heart."
In conclusion, then, the remedy for all the wrongs which I have en-
deavored to portray, consists, first, in the enactment and faithful enforce-
16 THE PROTECTION OF ANIMALS.
ment of laws ; second, in faithful inspection at cattle markets and
slaughter-houses ; and third, in general humane education, particularly
of the young.
How are these things to be obtained ? I know of no other practicable
method, in this country, except through the agency of organized societies
for the prevention of cruelty to animals, which shall strive to circulate
information, and promote humane education ; and when other means
fail, shall have power to enforce the laws.
In the better time coming, I am sure many of these wrongs must
cease, and that doctrine which Christ taught in his Sermon on the
Mount, " Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy," will
come to be more earnestly preached in our churches, and more generally
taught in our schools.
In the mean time it is my duty to work ; and in pursuance of that
duty, I have come before this meeting of American scholars held in the
interests of social science, to speak for those who cannot speak for them-
selves, and in their behalf to ask you to encourage and aid this work.
PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS.
RATES OF MEMBERSHIP.
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Active Annual Membership ...... 10.00
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Children's Membership . . . . . . . 1.00
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Bubsoription to "Our Dumb Animals" (Monthly Paper) , . 1.00
AU members receive our paper and all publications of the Society FREE.
FKANK B. FAY, SECEETAay.
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